La memoria de los cuentos: “Tía Juliana”

Los cuentos populares que nos han llegado a través de la tradición oral son parte fundamental de la historia de la literatura. Con el objeto de recuperarlos y preservarlos para el futuro, la Sociedad Estatal de Conmemoraciones Culturales (SECC) ha editado La memoria de los cuentos. Los últimos narradores orales. Antonio Rodríguez Almodóvar, especialista en esta vía de transmisión de los cuentos hispánicos, es el editor de esta publicación que se completa con el documental La memoria de los cuentos, dirigido por José Luis López Linares.

El objetivo de este proyecto es poner en valor uno de los mayores tesoros de la cultura popular española, la de los cuentos que se han transmitido durante siglos en el seno de la familia, de la tertulia campesina o del patio de vecindad. Un patrimonio de nuestra propia tradición que nada debe a la de otros países del entorno ni a ninguna cultura escrita y que ha llegado hasta nosotros muy debilitado, pero que formó a muchas generaciones en el universo simbólico colectivo, a través de personas, a menudo iletradas (no incultas), poseedoras de un saber popular extraordinariamente rico y no siempre bien valorado.

Portadores de patrimonio

Para realizar este proyecto, Antonio Rodríguez Almodóvar y José Luis López Linares han recorrido la geografía española para localizar y entrevistar a algunos de los últimos portadores de este patrimonio inmaterial de la humanidad. El libro y el documental reúnen, así, una treintena de relatos contados por nueve narradores de entre setenta y noventa años en su lengua o habla local: español –de distintas zonas–, gallego, vizcaíno, menorquín, andaluz, castúo…

Los narradores –cuyos cuentos van precedidos de una breve biografía– son Julia Hernández Rodríguez “Tía Juliana” (Descargamaría, Cáceres, 1922); Consolación Soriano Cariñana (Iniesta, Cuenca, 1939); Juana Rodríguez López (Prioro, León); Ángel Rivas Veiga (Eirexúa, Lugo, 1924); Francisco Castro Salvatierra (Tahivilla, Cádiz, 1927); Esperanza Barber Barber (Es Migjorn Gran, Menorca, 1941); Sito Pelegrí Pons (Es Migjorn Gran, Menorca, 1934); Nicolau Huguet Moll (Es Migjorn Gran, Menorca 1925-2009) y Benigna Lasuen Urkidi (Aulesti, Vizcaya, 1922).

Gracias a la cooperación entre investigadores y narradores orales podemos comprobar que las mismas historias se encuentran en puntos muy alejados geográficamente. Así, la extremeña Juliana Hernández cuenta una versión de Los animales miedosos más conocida por la versión de los hermanos Grimm Los músicos de Bremen y que es prácticamente idéntica a la que relata la conquense Consolación Soriano, sin que ninguna de las dos variantes españolas tenga más relación con la alemana que la pertenencia al viejo tronco común de la cultura indoeuropea. Consolación, a su vez, narra una versión de Estrellita de oro, una de las múltiples Cenicientas españolas, muy similar a Na Catalineta i na Catalinota del menorquín Sito Pelegrí Pons.

Las mismas historias en distintos lugares

La amplia difusión geográfica de los mismos cuentos es espejo de la permanencia en el tiempo, que lleva a que la versión del gallego Ángel Rivas de O castelo de irás e non volverás está basado en el mismo cuento que le contaron en la Alpujarra granadina a Antonio Rodríguez Almodóvar en 1985. Esperanza Barber (Es Migjorn Gran, Menorca) cuenta L´amor de las tres taronges, cuya historia inspiró a Sergéi Prokófiev para su ópera El amor de las tres naranjas; y Benigna Lasuen (Aulesti, Vizcaya), redescubre la maravillosa historia de Antzorrillotetxu, un cuento muy extendido en toda Europa y en el que se basó William Shakespeare para su Rey Lear. Esta fuente de cultura es, al mismo tiempo, ejemplo de la pervivencia de las formas de vida de las sociedades rurales y de su sabiduría y vitalidad creativa, mantenida por personas que aprendieron escuchando, no pudieron ir a la escuela o la abandonaron siendo niños debido a las condiciones de vida en su infancia.

La publicación se completa con el documental La memoria de los cuentos, producido por López-Li Films para la SECC. El documental, de 59 minutos de duración cuenta con la participación de los narradores junto a testimonio de familiares, vecinos, profesores y especialistas

Fichas técnicas

Publicación: La memoria de los cuentos. Los últimos narradores orales
Edita: Sociedad Estatal de Conmemoraciones Culturales
Editor: Antonio Rodríguez Almodóvar
Coordinación: Beatriz Rodríguez Delgado y Yolanda Hernández Pin (SECC)
Fotografías: José Luis López Linares y Valeria Gentile
ISBN: 978-84-92827-56-5
Precio: 20 €

Documental: La memoria de los cuentos

Sin categoría | 28 julio 2011

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